Part 2 Milling data creation (CAM)


Functions in CAM area

Functions in CAM menu

MillCorr 2D(3D)
Graphic > milling path
Inlays
3D-drill cycles / 3D-cycles
Drilling cycles
Edit CAM
Rates of cut control
Holding webs
PCNC lathe
TrackParallel clr.
Hatching
Autocorrection:
Projections
List layer content
Norm projection
Volume view
Tool Simulat

The functions in the CAM menu.

The functions available in your program are dependent on your program configuration and can deviate from this description. Current information on the operation of the functions can be obtained using program help.
MillCorr 2D(3D)
2D or 3D (cutout) milling track calculation for one tool in the Actlayer.


This function can be used in two ways:


No paths marked: 

All Graphics and all texts from the ActLayer are used for the calculation.

Marked graphic:
Only the marked graphic is used for the calculation.

The milling path calculation requires a complete and correctly input tool (comp. Parameter . Tool Input). The tool is displayed in the right-hand side of the input window. The milling track offset results from the sumTool radius (Res) + Contour offset.

 / Switching of the input for MillCorr 2D/3D to all inputs / reduced to minimum inputs (2D only).
Confirm input and start calculation.
Cancel input.
Tool#:Selection of the milling tool for the offset track. The tool is addressed with its position in the tool library (#0..199). The selected tool is displayed in the right-hand side of the input window. If a tool library is still not constructed or if a tool is to be newly input or modified, the tool input can be activated by clicking-on the tool graphic. Alternatively you access the tool input using <m,f2></m,f2> in the input Tool#. If the milling path calculation is cancelled with an error message ‘Tool without incised depth’, ‘no tip radius’ or similar, then please supplement the tool input (comp. General Instructions . Tool Input).
Target layer:Select the target layers for this offset track. The calculated milling paths are saved in this layer. If there are data already in the target layer, then the new milling paths are saved in addition. Using <m,f2></m,f2> you reach the layer selection.
Contour offset:Additional offset of the cutter tip in pos./neg. direction. In the positive direction (enlarge offset) max. 99.999mm. In the negative direction (reduce offset) max. to cutter tip radius of the tool. The contour offset is added to the tool radius (Res). This contour offset serves only for the correction of the tool displacement, e.g. with tool wear. In most cases the offset remains at 0.
Processes 2D, 2D+3D, 3D:
2D:The contours are circumscribed at full milling depth only (Tool . Incised Depth).
2D+3D:The contours are circumscribed and cut out on the inside of the corners (carving) using a conical tool.
3D:Only the internal corners are cut out using a conical tool.

Input 2D + 3D and 3D from eSIGN2D (v3). In simple programs (e.g. eSIGN2D (l), (lg)) the 3D processes are NOT available.

Correction:Correction direction outwards (cutting around) or inwards (excavation).
Direction:Milling direction climb- or up milling. For climb milling a surface (surface relief) is milled in the mathematically negative direction.
Rounding angle:Vectorisation angle for the rounding off (5°-180°). An angle of 5° to ca. 30° rounds off all corners. An angle >120° (e.g. 150°) forms corners from all curves in the given radius. A too large a rounding angle can, in a few cases, lead to problems. The setting should be in the range ca. 20°..30°.
Delete original contour:
YES:Deletes the contours used for the calculation. Thereafter the milling paths in the target layer only are available. The original graphic used is removed.
NO:The original graphic continues to remain. This can be reused later.
Save with tool[Y/N]:
YES:Saves the input tool to the milling paths.
NO:The result is saved as graphic path (without tool).

Milling data should always be saved with tool.

Clearance process:
Linear:Recommended clearance process.

Create clearance contours and clearance lines in the angle to be input. The clearance lines are, as far as possible, to be joined together.

LineUni:Create clearance contours and clearance lines in the angle to be input. The lines always run in one direction.
TrackPar:A clearance track is created through equidistant milling run lines (radius-related island engraving).
None:Create no clearance movements.
Overlapping [0..90%]:Overlapping of the clearance paths related to the tool tip radius. A very small overlapping results in less clearance paths. With an overlapping of, for example, 0% there is a danger that some residual chip remains in the cutter base. A very large overlapping results in more clearance paths. For standard processing an overlapping of ca.20% is recommended.
Hatching angle:Direction of progression of the linear hatching tracks in the mathematically positive direction of rotation. The hatching angle can be input in the range -180°..+180°.

0 degrees results in horizontal hatching lines.

Graphic > milling
Adopt graphics from the Actlayer as milling paths.

This function can be used in two modes:


No paths marked: 

All Graphics and all texts from the ActLayer are used for the calculation.

Marked graphic:
Only the marked graphic is used for the calculation.

Confirm input and adopt paths.
Cancel input.
Tool #:Select the milling tool from the library. A click on the tool graphic opens the tool input. The milling process takes place on saving with tool using this tool and the associated parameters.
Target layer:Select the target layer in which the milling data is saved. If data are already in the target layer, then the new milling paths are saved in addition. Using <m,f2></m,f2> you reach the layer selection.
Delete original contour:
Yes:Delete the contours used. After this only the milling paths in the target layer are available. The original graphic used is removed.
NO:The original graphic continues to remain. These can be reused later.
Save with tool:
YES:Saves the input tool to the milling paths.
NO:The result is saved as graphic path (without tool).

Milling data should always be saved with the tool.

Inlays
Automatic calculation of outline- (M – male) or inline- (W – female) milling tracks for 2D inlay work (Inlay). The function calculates all offsets and all roundingsoff. Inlayscan be employed for milling through tasks and for pockets.

With the milling out of parts (2D milling tasks) inevitably rounding off occurs in the internal corners. These roundings-off are formed by the tool and cannot be avoided. In order that such parts can be fitted accurately into the counter piece, the opposite side must possess the same roundingoffs in the external corners.

In order that the same rounding-off is milled, the same tools must be selected for both sides. The width of the areas enclosed by contours must, at all points, be at least 2 x offset radius. If this minimum width is undercut then gaps result or the contour is ignored.

For different tasks it can be important to create an additional minimum gap between parts. The contour offset can be used for this. A negative contour offset crates a gap. A positive contour offset is used, for example with tool wear.

Confirm input and start calculation.
Cancel input.
Tool #:Selection of the milling tool for the offset track. <m,f2></m,f2> or clicking on the tool graphic opens the tool input. A cylindrical tool should be selected for inlays.
Target layer [0..Alderman]:Selection of the target layer for the calculated milling paths. <m,f2></m,f2> for graphical layer selection.
Contour offset (+/-100)[mm]:For the calculation the cutter radius from the tool should be used. Using contour offset this cutter radius can be enlarged or scaled down. Contour offset is an additional displacement of the cutter tip in pos./neg. direction. Input in positive direction max. 99.999 mm. Input in negative direction max. cutter tip radius of the offset tool.
Finishing offset [<100% Cut]:The offset track for clean milling is carried out using a last cut (finishing) in the width of the finishing offset. The input takes place in % of the tip radius. With finishingoffset = 0% no finishing path is created. The input 100% creates a finishing offsetin the width of the cutter tip radius. Typical inputs are 10 .. 50%
Correction direction:Correction direction of the inlays. Inwards (W – female): correction towards the inside. With this, nicks and pockets are created. Outwards (M – male): correction towards the outside. With this, cutouts are created, the part is milled around.
Direction [climb milling, up milling]:Milling direction climb- or up milling. For climb milling a surface (relief surface is milled around in the mathematically negative direction.
Rounding angle [°]:Rounding-off of the external corners (5..30°). Large roundingoff angles generate a coarse vectorisation, small angles a fine vectorisation of the external roundingoff. Typical settings lie in the range 5..30°.
Delete original contour:
YES:Deletes the contours used for the calculation. Thereafter only the milling paths in the target layer are available. The original graphic employed is removed.
NO:The original graphic continues to remain. This can be reused later.
Save with tool:
YES:Saves the input tool to the milling paths.
NO:The result is saved as graphic path (without tool).

Milling data should always be saved with the tool.

Clearance process:If pockets for inlay work are to be milled out, the inner lying area must, for example, be milled free (cleared). If the material is milled through then no pocket has to be milled free and the clearance program None can be selected.

Linear:Create clearance contours and clearance lines in the angle to be input. The clearance lines are, as far as possible, to be joined together.
Recommended clearance process.
LineUni:Create clearance contours and clearance lines in the angle to be input. The lines always run in one direction.
TrackPar:A clearance track is created through equidistant milling run lines (radius-related island engraving).
None:No clearance paths are generated. Setting for millingthrough work.
Overlapping:Overlapping of clearance paths. In order that pockets are free-milled cleanly the clearance paths should overlap. The input takes place in % of the tip radius. Typical settings 20 .. 30%.
Hatching angle:Direction of progression of the linear hatching tracks in the mathematically positive direction of rotation. 0 degrees produces horizontal, 90° produces vertical hatching lines.
3D-drill cycles (eSIGN Art, ConstruCAM-3D) / 3D-cycles (HCAM)
Bohrzyklen 3D
3D-drill cycles
only eSIGN Art, ConstruCAM-3D.
3D - Zyklen
3D-cycles
only HCAM.

After the parameter input 3D-drill cycles or 3D-cycles are calculated in milling paths directly and stored into the target layer. The function 3D-cycles is available only in HCAM. The function 3D-drill cycles, an extract from 3D-cycles, is available in the programs eSIGN Art and ConstruCAM-3D.

The function allows the direct calculation of 3D milling cycles (paths) from marked contours or drillings. Conversion for cutout, milling around and pocket can take place for only one contour. For route, drilling, spiral drilling, and hollow several paths can also be selected. Here own cycles are then calculated for each path. The 3D cycles are saved together with the tool data in the given target layer.

For the creation of the milling data complete tool information (geometry data, Technology Data I and Technology Data II) is required. If the Technology Data II (max. layer depth, chip lift and smoothing
offset) are not provided, then only simple milling paths in complete depth are calculated.
 

For all cycles the tool # and a target layer is needed.


Tool #:Selection of drilling (milling) tool from library. <m,f2></m,f2> or click-on the tool graphic opens the window to the tool input. The tool requires geometry data for the description of the tool shape. Suitable tools are drills or end mill (cylinder) cutters. The cutter radius must be matched to the drill diameter. The Technology data I determine the total drilling depth (incision depth), feed rates, speed of rotation, changing station. The Technology data IIare required for the calculation of the drilling strategy:

 Technology data II

max. layer depth [mm]:Maximum milling depth which is carried out (preparation) in one layer using this tool. This setting is employed for vertical drilling cycles and hole circles. For a simple vertical drilling in one run max. layer depth is to be set to a value >= the tool incision depth.
Chip pass [mm]:Chip movements (peck drilling) for vertical drillings (not for hole circles). A chip pass serves for the breaking off/ tearing off of a bore chip. This characteristic cannot be used for milling. For drillings it is driven to a layer depth (setting max. layer depth) around the value given in the chip pass (the chip is broken). After this the movement to the next layer depth follows.
Finishing offset [%[CuT]]:Separation for an additional finishing run. With 0 no finishing run takes place. This setting can be used for hole circles only. The setting takes place in % of the tip radius (CuT). Typical settings are 10 .. 50%.
Target layer:Selection of the  target layers in which the milling data are saved.

The milling cycles (only contained in 3D-cycles).

AusbruchInward excavation
(only HCAM)
UmfräsungMilling around
(
only HCAM)
TaschePocket
(
only HCAM)


Inward excavation, milling around, pocket:
Calculation of an excavation, milling around or a pocket (with clearance tracks). The sense of rotation of the milling paths (upmilling/downmilling) depends on the rotation sense of the graphic.

StreckeRoute
(
only HCAM)

Route:
Calculation of milling tracks (layers) for route(s) (without offset calculation).

The 3D-drilling cycles (contained in 3D-drill cycles and in 3D-cycles).

BohrungDrilling.

Drilling.
If the drill diameter is the same as the cutter diameter then vertical movements with chip lift otherwise circular milling tracks in layers are calculated.

Drilling diameter (d) [mm]:Diameter of the to generate drilling (must be >= cutter diameter).
GewindeThread.


Thread.
Helix to mill simple threads. At the end of the helix the tool moves freely to the middle. For threads a special tool (cylindrical pin with nose) is needed.

Drilling diameter (d) [mm]:Diameter of the thread (must be larger than the cutter diameter).
Incline (s) [mm]:Thread pitch (Incline per revolution).
SpiralbohrungSpiral drilling.


Spiral drilling.
Spiral form drilling (helix) to drill larger hole diameter.

Drilling diameter (d) [mm]:Diameter of the drilling (must be larger than the cutter diameter).
Incline (s) [mm]:Spiral incline (Incline per revolution).
SenkungHollow (Indent).


Hollow.
Create milling path for a complete hollow (counterbore, cone and drilling). The hole milling will be executed with a cylindrical tool. Ideal are turned cylindrical tools with a small bevel at the tool dip. The Tool diameter (2xFrS) must be >= than the lower hole diameter (d).

Deep surface indent (f) [mm]:
Depth of the surface indent (on top).
Surface indent diameter (D) [mm]:Diameter of the surface indent (on top).
Indent angle (wi) [°]:Counterbore angle (cumulative angle) in degree.
Drilling diameter (d) [mm]:Diameter of the drilling (d) (must be >= cutter diameter).

The parameter (only contained in 3D-cycles).

ParameterParameter.
(only HCAM)
The cycle attributes (parameter) are used only for 3D-cycles.

Parameter.

Forward feed reduction:Reduction of the milling forward feed in the range 1..100%.
Retraction length:Route for which the forward feed is to be reduced.
Feed reduction 1.drilling:Reduction of the dip milling feed for the first drill lift of a vertical drill movement in the range 1..100%
3D insertion angle:Angle of the tool insertion movements. 90° produces vertical insertion movements.
Milling direction (Upmilling, downmilling):Set milling direction for ‘inward excavation’, ‘milling around’, ‘pocket’.

Upmilling:Mill around clockwise.
Downmilling:Mill around anticlockwise.
Holding Webs No. [0..4]:Automatic insert of holding webs for milling around an pocket. The automatic insert of holding webs is useful for simple contours as circle, ellipse, rectangle. Complex contours results sometimes unequal allocations of the holding webs. In that case the holding webs better should be placed manually. Max. 4 holding webs are possible. Setting = 0 creates no holding web.
1.holding web at degree [-180..360°]:The first holding web is placed at this angle. All other holding webs are placed in the same angle distance. For complex contours irregular angle distances are possible. In that cases the holding webs must be placed manually.
Web width [mm]:Width of the holding web (without cutter thickness). The contours must have a minimal length of 5 x web thickness.
Web thickness [mm]:Thickness of the holding webs (in Z direction).
Drilling cycles
Input drilling cycles and create suitable milling data. With this function simple drillings can be milled in one  run, vertical drillings with chip lifting and drilling circle milled. The drillings can be created automatically in various patterns (single drilling –drilling at polygon point).

The individual drilling cycles are created in the specified layer according to the tool data and the drill diameter. The tool and technology data can be matched in the tool input after clicking-on the tool graphic or after .

General details.

Tool #:Selection of drilling (milling) tool from library. <m,f2></m,f2> or click-on the tool graphic opens the window to the tool input. The tool requires geometry data for the description of the tool shape. Suitable tools are drills or end mill (cylinder) cutters. The cutter radius must be matched to the drill diameter. The Technology data I determine the total drilling depth (incision depth), feed rates, speed of rotation, changing station. The Technology data IIare required for the calculation of the drilling strategy:

 Technology data II

max. layer depth [mm]:Maximum milling depth which is carried out (preparation) in one layer using this tool. This setting is employed for vertical drilling cycles and hole circles. For a simple vertical drilling in one run max. layer depth is to be set to a value >= the tool incision depth.
Chip pass [mm]:Chip movements (peck drilling) for vertical drillings (not for hole circles). A chip pass serves for the breaking off/ tearing off of a bore chip. This characteristic cannot be used for milling. For drillings it is driven to a layer depth (setting max. layer depth) around the value given in the chip pass (the chip is broken). After this the movement to the next layer depth follows.
Finishing offset [%[CuT]]:Separation for an additional finishing run. With 0 no finishing run takes place. This setting can be used for hole circles only. The setting takes place in % of the tip radius (CuT). Typical settings are 10 .. 50%.
Target layer:Selection of the  target layers in which the milling data are saved.

The drilling model.

Single drilling:

Position and create a single drilling. The hole circle centre can be selected using the cursor or input using X/Y coordinates (Example -21 33.5). After input of the drilling data (see above) a drilling is created at the specified point.
Drilling diameter:Diameter of the drilling or of the hole circle. A drilling diameter can only be selected the same or larger than the tool diameter (2 x CuT). If the drill diameter = the tool diameter, then the program calculates vertical drill movements. If the drilling diameter is larger than the tool diameter then the program calculates hole circles in order to maintain the desired drilling diameter.

Hole circle:

Create drillings on a circle. The hole circle centre can be selected using the cursor or be input using X/Y coordinates (Example -21 33.5).
Drilling diameter

:

Diameter of the drilling or of the hole circle. A drilling diameter can only be selected the same or larger than the tool diameter (2 x CuT). If the drill diameter = the tool diameter, then the program calculates vertical drill movements. If the drilling diameter is larger than the tool diameter then the program calculates hole circles in order to maintain the desired drilling diameter.
Hole circle diameter [mm]:Diameter of the circle on which the drilling cycle is to be placed.
Start angle [°]:Angle for a drilling cycle on the hole circle. The first drilling is created on the point.
No. of drillings:Number of drillings distributed over 360°.
Drilling row.

Create drilling grid in one row.

Drilling matrix.

Create drilling grid in columns and rows (right-angled arrangement).


Input drilling row:

Number:Number of drillings in the row.
Separation X/Y:Separation of the drillings.


Input drilling matrix:

Number X/Y:Number of drilling cycles in X and Y direction.
Separation X/Y:Separation of the drilling cycles in X and Y direction.


For the input of drilling data see single drilling.

Drilling matrix spec..

Bohrmatrix spec.Create drilling grid in columns and rows with enhanced settings. First a reference point has been entered. The drilling matrix isreferenced to this point with its left bottom side.
Number X/Y:Number of drilling cycles in X and Y direction.
Separation X/Y:Separation of the drilling cycles in X and Y direction.
X-displacement next line [%]:The drilling of the next row will be displaced right with this amount. The displacement is referenced to the separation X
X-displacement [mm] = X-displacement [%]/100*separation X.
Direction X:Operating sequence in X-direction.

[le > ri]:Operating sequence for all rows is left to right.
[ri > le]:Operating sequence for all rows is right to left.
[meander]:Operating sequence for all rows is meander formed (oscillating).
Direction Y:Abarbeitungsreihenfolge in Y-Richtung.

[top > do]:Operating sequence for the matrix is top to down.
[do > top]:Operating sequence for the matrix is down to top.

For the input of drilling data see single drilling.

Drill plate centre/corner/border:

Position drilling cycles on a plate. The working limit specified in Layout . Limits is employed as limit.
Centre:Position a drilling cycle in the plate centre.
Corner:Position 4 drilling cycles in the corners with distance ax and ay to the working limit.
Border:Position 8 drilling cycles on a border with distance ax and ay to the working limit.


For the input of drilling data see single drilling.

Drilling contour:

Position drilling cycle along marked path at the specified separation (point separation).


For the input of drilling data see single drilling.

Drilling at PolyPt:
Position drilling cycle along marked paths at the end of the polygon points.

For the input of drilling data see single drilling.

 Edit CAM
Display and editing of milling paths with tools (tool object).


First, last, one forward, one back:
The indicator in the CAM list is positioned with first .. one back as well as the cursor key <cu< b=””></cu<>
Up, PgUp, CuDn, PgDn, Home, End>. The current milling object is marked in red in the graphic.

Object sequence:
Alteration of the data/milling sequence. You can displace the current milling object in the sequence to the first up to the last position.

Clear object:
The current milling object is deleted.

Copy to Layer:
The current milling object is copied in another layer.

Rates of cut:
Calculation of milling paths in several layers, incision movements, surface relief offset etc. (comp. Help to adjustment of rate of cut.).

Tools:
The milling path tools can be edited in all milling objects. Please note that tool geometry modifications can lead to false milling results.

Tool sequence:
The milling sequence of the tool objects are sorted according to different criteria. With ‘TSt increasing’/’TSt decreasing’/’tool name’/’cutting edge radius’/’tip radius’/’spherical radius’/’angle’/’safety height’/’incision depth’/
‘working feed XY’/’incision feed Z’/’Spindle rpm’/’tool life’ the objects are sorted according to the criteria. using Reverse sequence the order can be inverted.

Mill graphic:
For display of the 3D milling paths from the current milling object.

The milling path editing.
As a matter of principle HCAM supports several methods of milling path editing:

  • The input of 2D paths into a graphic layer and allocation of the layer tool. With exporting via direct mill the tool and technology data are linked with the cutter centre track.
  • The calculation of milling paths in Autocorrection, Projections, Relief, GridCut etc. and direct output of milling data via TLayer/PLayer Export.
  • The saving of precalculated milling data in graphic layers and export of the selected layer via  direct mill.
  • The saving of precalculated milling data in one (or more) milling layers, editing and view of complete data using, for example, Edit CAM, Norm Projection and Volume view and export of the layer(s) using direct mill.
Rates of cut control
Rate of cut control combined with surface relief depth and  slanted incision on the track. The rate of cut control is also sensible for only one layer, e.g. for surface relief infeed and/or for incised movements. If paths are marked, then only the marked paths are worked, otherwise the data are provided with chip layers in the ActLayer. Rates of cut are always generated for fully calculated milling paths. The generation of rates of cut before a milling track calculation (e.g. autocorrection) is not possible!


Rates of cut can be calculated in 2 modes:
1) Rates of cut for graphic data in the layer in combination with layer tool.
Here no milling offset calculation is planned by the user and the milling offset is already taken into account. Paths in the graphic layer and a layer tool are required for the calculation.
The layer tool requires at least: 
tip radius (CuT) e.g. 1.5mm, incision depth (FEt) = max. milling depth e.g. 2.5mm and a changing station (TSt) e.g. 1. Select rates of cut control and a layer depth < tool incision depth e.g. 1mm. With layer distribution = same 3 layers with each 0.833mm are created, with  layer distribution = rest, 2 layers with 1.0mm and the last layer with 0.5mm, are created.

2) Rates of cut for milling data in the layer (recommended method).
Calculate the milling paths e.g. with  MillCorr 2D/3D. Tool . incision depth = max. milling depth e.g. 2.5mm and save these in one layer. Now, you find yourself in the selected target layer milling data with the tool information. Select the target layer with the milling data. Select rates of cut control and a layer depth < tool incision depth e.g. 1mm. With layer distribution = same 3 layers with each 0.833mm are created, with layer distribution = rest, 2 layers with 1.0mm and the last layer with 0.5mm, are created.

If there is tool information in the data set then the data of these tools are used, otherwise the data of the layer tool are used. If paths to several tools are in the data set then layers are calculated for all tools.

Surface relief depth (Z-Offset) [mm]:Z-displacement of the complete data downwards (e.g. for processing in pockets). The surface relief is the highest point of the workpiece to be processed. The surface relief depth can be input positive only.
(Value > 0 = displacement downwards). A displacement upwards is not possible (above material surface or collision of the free paths with the material).
Layer depth [mm]:Max. 999 layers and minimum layer depth = 0.001mm are possible. The complete milling depth available is divided into layers (e.g. FEt=2.0mm and layer depth=1.5mm produces 2 layers with each 1.0mm with layer distribution = same). For the end depth the incision depth of the current tool or the depth of the 3D paths is employed (greatest value).
Incision anglel [°]:Incision movement (10..90°), with 90° incision is vertical. With the setting 10° very flat approach movements are created. 
Track/layer oriented [Y/N]:
YES:The contours are set lower individually.
NO:A layer with all contours is ready-milled before the next milling layer is milled.
Layer distribution [same/Rest]:
Same:All layers are set the same (same layer depth).
Rest:The layers are milled with the specified depth. For the last layer there is a residual layer down to the total milling depth.

Example: drilling with chip pass.
Simple drillings which, for example, have been input using Draw . Point (drilling), can be provided with rates of cut control in layers  using chip passes. 

Input:
– Layer depth: value < tool . incision depth.
– Incision angle: 90°.
– 
Track-/layer orientedYES.
– Layer distributionsame.

Holding webs
Input holding webs for  milling out work. At the holding web the processing tool runs from the base around the web thickness upwards, so that the material at that point is not quite milled through and the inner part is held with milling out. Holding webs can only be input for closed contours. At the point at which a holding web is to be installed there may be no 3D paths.

Holding webs can only be input for milling data with tool information. If you are in a layer with graphic data the input is discontinued with error message.

Web width:Width of holding web (without cutter width). The selected contours must have a minimum length of 5 x web width.
Web thickness:Strength of the holding web (in Z direction).

Following input of the web data (web width, web thickness) you can place as many holding webs in the 2D milling paths as required. For this click-on to the milling path at the point at which a holding web is to be positioned. A holding web is placed at the clicked-on position and the contour start point is so displaced that the holding web is run as last. For a contour several points for holding webs can be clicked on. In this case the holding web of a contour defined last is at the end of the contour.

The holding web input is ended using the  key or at the Mouse using .

PCNC lathe (for ConstruCAM-3D only)


Turning device with HEIZ milling machine. This special function generates the movements for a turning device from a section processing in a horizontal direction. The section describes a section through the workpiece to be turned. A detailed description can be obtained under 
Turning using HEIZ milling machines.

TrackParallel clr.
The marked contours are cleared using parallel tracks (continuous clearance calculation). The proposed cutter offset is the resultant radius of the tool.


Error-free contours are demanded for the calculation. In case of doubt, the paths should should be checked before a calculation using  mark. intersection point. The offset is always calculated in the positive direction (right from the contour). If it is to be calculated in the opposite direction, the direction of rotation of the contour(s) must be inverted beforehand using  
process . rotate track(s).

Hatching
The areas enclosed by closed contours are hatched. The clearance (complete area milled away) differs from the hatching i.a. through the separation of the milling tracks and though the joining of milling lines.

Non-closed sections or individual vectors create errors (comp. vector data format).

This function can be used in 2 modes:


No paths marked: 

All graphics and all texts from the  ActLayer are employed for the calculation.

Marked graphic:
Only the mark
ed graphic is employed for the calculation.

Tool:To save with tool this function required a completely and correctly input tool (comp. Extras . Tool input). The tool is displayed in the right-hand side of the input window.
<m, f2=””></m,> or clicking-on the tool graphic opens the tool input.
Target layer:Selection of the target layer for the saving of milling data.
Combine clearance lines:
YES:The hatching/clearance lines are combined together.
NO:The hatching takes place with individual lines.
Inwards (recessed):Selection of hatching inside or outside the contours.

YES:Limiting edges are the outer lying tracks.
NO:Limiting edge is the working frame (‘Layout . Limits’).
Line separation:Determines the parallel offset of the hatching lines.
Safety:Determines the safety separation of the milling tracks in the milling direction of the contour. If the value is selected greater than 50% of the line separation, then additionally there follows a safety query. Basically it is sensible to maintain a safety separation to the contour, because otherwise, with instable machines, there is a danger that the contour will be harmed due to overshooting. For clearance this value should be selected as ca. 50% of the line separation, in order that the clearance lines can be joined safely without touching the contour.
Hatching angle:Determines the hatching angle in degrees in the mathematically positive direction of rotation. 0 degrees produces horizontal hatching lines. Input range: -180° .. 360°
Inwards by blocks:For the setting inwards (recessed) = YES the hatching an be calculated in blocks. For this the associated, interlaced contours are calculated together in individual blocks. Overall this produces more sensible milling runs. With the setting inwards (recessed) = NO the outer clearance limit is the set working area and the complete work forms one block. 

YES:The calculation takes place as far as possible in blocks. 
NO:The calculation takes place for all contours together.
Bidirectional:The setting Bi-directional is employed for the non-integrated milling lines only (setting Join clearance lines = NO). 

YES:Milling path optimises movement. After each hatching line a reversal of the milling direction takes place (reciprocal milling).
NO:Milling movements in one direction only. All milling movements take place in one direction only. This setting generates longer free paths at the start of the next line. This setting is employed mainly for optical engraving (no free space) and for high surface quality.
Co-save contour:
YES:Saves the hatching limits (contours) with the paths to be generated.
NO:Saves the hatching without contours.
Save with tool:
YES:Saves the specified tool to the milling paths.
NO:The input is saved without tool (not recommended).
Autocorrection: (from eSIGN3Di)

In AutoCorrection there summarised. A detailed description can be found under the Autocorrection Program.

Projections (from eSIGN Art)


Project the milling data from a layer onto free-form areas. This milling data can consist of 2D and/or 3D milling paths and must possess a correct tool (layer tool or tool(s) in the data). A detailed description can be found under 
The Projection.

List of layer content

Lists the data in the ActLayer in one file and open this file using the editor. Displayed are: program version, file name, date + time, work frame, layer#, extent of the data, number of vectors and text lines, layer tool or tool in the layer, paths and times in the material and above the material. If the graphic layer contains paths, then the number of contours is shown. If the layer contains text lines, the number of text characters is also shown after the number of text lines. Counted are all symbols > Space (#33..#255).

Norm projection

Input block view.

Input 3D graphic

3D view of the cutter centre track. The milling data are shown in perspective. The perspective angle can be adjusted using the 8 direction buttons. With the setting in plan view (all angles = 0) the 3D paths are shown in grey (colour) shades. ´The settings for the 3D view are possible in 2 variants. The switch over takes place using the button Graph/Norm. For the zoom selection  (enlarged view/extract) the input is switched in the setting graph  (to Menu).

Graph/Norm:Switchover of the input with schematic block aspect or direct with 3D graphic.
Zoom:Selection of an enlarged 3D aspect. If he input window is in the Norm aspect (block representation), then the window is switched into the Graph aspect (on menu) and the 3D view is drawn. Following selection of the display area using a rectangle the enlarged representation is drawn.
Direction button:Displacement of the block/graphic aspect in 5° steps.
PosnA:Colour setting for the recessed movements (free movements).

Black:Free movements are marked in grey.
Blue-green:Free movements are marked in blue-green. For 5 axis milling data from a ‘HCAM . Multi-axis Proj.’ the angle settings of the tool are represented by lines at the vector end points.
Red:Free movements marked in red.
Grey:Perspective display with height level marking. The paths lying above the input level are indicated in black, the paths below the line indicated in grey. Free movements are not marked.
OK:The graphic is generated using the data set.
Esc:The function is cancelled.
Volume view
The milling paths in the ActLayerare displayed as rendered aspect of the workpiece to be worked. For this a quader is so worked as if it were milled. For this display valid tools (layer tool or tool in the data set) are required.

Resolution:
Setting very fine to very coarseVery fine requires long calculation times, very coarse creates a coarse, gridded view. Initial setting = normal

Palette selection:
Selection of the palette for the colour representation. Initial setting = blue intensive

Aspect angle:
Adjust 
aspect. Initial setting = plan view (0°/0°)

Drawing:
Setting soft, medium, hard. Initial setting = medium

BMP image:
Save the image in a BMP file.

Tool simulat.

Working off of milling data using the tool data.

Mill centreline/ width milling trace:Select the milling path presentation.
No free paths/ show free paths:Simulation with/without free paths.
Feed rate factor [0,1..10]:The graphic build-up produces the feed rate set for the tool. Using the feed rate factor the feed rate can be reduced or increased. A feed rate factor = 1 leaves the milling feed unchanged. A feed rate factor < 1 reduces and a feed rate factor > 1 increases the milling feed.
Relief:
On relief:A relief is calculated from the milling data, which is used as background.
NO:No background image is applied.
Quality level:Adjustment of the quality level for the background relief. Very fine .. very coarse.
Render:YES: The background relief is additionally rendered.
Colours:Colour selection for the background relief or the rendered background image.