Part 3 CAD Design


Functions for design in CAD

The functions in the Draw menu.

The functions available in your program are dependent on your program configuration and can deviate from this description. Current information on the operation of the functions can always be obtained using the program help.

Every input (section, contour, ..) begins with a position exchange. A withdrawn position is a free movement of the machine with raised tool for the start position. 2D milling movements are, for example, carried out using position incised. An incised position is a milling movement of the machine with tool lowered or incised to the specified position. The desired milling depth for PosnE is, for example, determined using the incised depth of the layer tool or according to the calculation of the milling data in the CAM area.

Position A (PosnA) (Position withdrawn = free movement to start position)

Input start point for the graphic. With Position A the start of a contour or a section is determined.

The engineering aid can be activated using the middle Mouse key <M> (alternatively using <F2> or <Sft> and right Mouse key <R>).

Position E (PosnE) (Position incised = milling movement of the machine)

Input support point of a 2D polygon absolutely in X und Y. During the cursor input, a line is also carried continuously as “rubber band”. Only PosnA can be entered with an empty layer.

Operations:

<L>,<E>,<Rem>:Position incised.
<M>,<F2>:Engineering aid (see above).
<R>,<Esc>:Abort input.
<W>:Position withdrawn.
<C>:Close contour

The engineering aid can be activated using the middle Mouse key <M> (alternatively using <F2> or <Sft> and right Mouse key <R>).

Position 3D (Posn3D)

Input an absolute position 3D with X,Y,Z coordinates. Following the cursor input the coordinates can be edited in 3D. If only 2 coordinates or Z = 0 are input, then a 2D position (PosnE) is created. A 3D position can be modified using edit . displace position.

The engineering aid can be activated using the middle Mouse key <M> (alternatively using <F2> or <Sft> and right Mouse key <R>).

Point (drilling)

 The function Point places a withdrawn position (PosnA) followed by an incised position (PosnE) at the point input. This point, like almost all character functions can be input either using the cursor or alternatively its X/Y coordinates via the keyboard. Following input, points are marked with the point symbol . The drilling depth is determined using the incised depth of the layer tool.

Note: for the input of a point grid one can work with capture grid support. Using operat . series/tilel regular point alignments can be created by copying. Points can be provided with (drilling/cutting) characteristics in HCAM.

The engineering aid can be activated using the middle Mouse key <M> (alternatively using <F2> or <Sft> and right Mouse key <R>).

Straight
Input point (vector) for an incised or withdrawn line. With input via the keyboard the separation in the X and Y direction between the last position and the target position is input. The cursor input does not differ from the input of a position.

The engineering aid can be activated using the middle Mouse key <M>(alternatively using <F2> or <Sft> and right Mouse key <R>).

The functions of the straight selection:

Straight dX,dY A:Straight, incised, input dX,dY (Positioning aid).
Straight dX,dY E:Straight, incised, input dX,dY.
Straight R,An E:Straight, incised, input radius, angle.
Straight15° R,An E:Straight, incised, input radius, angle divisible by 15°.
Straight R,dX E:Straight R(absolute) and +/-dX, dash prefix dY results from the Mouse posn.
Straight R,dY E:Straight R(absolute) and +/-dY, prefix dX results from the Mouse posn.
Straight An,dx E:Straight An, dX(absolute).
Straight An,dy E:Straight An, dY(absolute).
Line S,E

Input line with start (PosnA) and end point (PosnE) absolutely.

The engineering aid can be activated using the middle Mouse key <M> (alternatively using <F2> or <Sft> and right Mouse key <R>).

Free-hand line

Draw a free-hand line using the cursor. After pressing the key <L> the cursor positions are taken over continuously until release and displayed as frequency polygon (section). Free-hand lines are optimised automatically by the program.

Spline

Input a spline using any desired number of support points. the spline resolution (number of the interpolation points) are determined through Input parameters . Spline resolution.

Using the function Spline the next constant curve is drawn through a number of support points. The calculated curve in all cases runs through these points. With small changes in slope these can lie far apart, in tight areas of the curve they should, however, be selected more densely. Points of discontinuity, i.e. kinks in the curve, cannot be input as spline. Here the function must be discontinued and a new spline started. The last position input determines the slope of the curve in the end point.

During the input a line to the position is also carried as “rubber band”. As soon a 3 support positions are input the start of the curve is also drawn. A support point is adopted using <L>. Using <R> the function is ended (last spline position). If, during the input of a spline, a start point is selected near the contour start point, then this point is captured and the contour closed. Further point input creates a new spline with new contour start point.

Spline curveOperat . mirrorCombine tracks
Rectangle S,E

Input a rectangle with an absolute start and an absolute end point. Following input of the zero position the rectangle is continuously codrawn. The rectangle input is acknowledged using <L> and aborted using <R>. The keyboard input takes place via a zero point and the end point of the rectangle diagonally opposite. The instantaneous elongation of the rectangle is displayed in the input line as, for example,

dx=21.4 dy=10.33

Rectangle S,dX/dY

Input a rectangle with an absolute start point and the relative elongation in X und Y. Following the input of the zero position (Start point) the rectangle is codrawn continuously. The rectangle input is acknowledged using <L> and aborted using <R>. The keyboard input takes place via the zero position and the elongation of the rectangle using dX and dY. The instantaneous elongation of the rectangle is displayed in the input line as, for example,

dx=21.4 dy=10.33

Rectangle MP,EP

Input a rectangle with an absolute middle point and an absolute end point. The rectangle is laid centrally at the middle point (MP). The rectangle input is acknowledged using <L> and aborted using <R>. The keyboard input takes place via the middle point and the end point of the rectangle. The instantaneous elongation of the rectangle is displayed in the input line as, for example,

do=21.4 die=10.33

Rectangle MP,dX/dY

Input a rectangle with an absolute start point and the relative elongation in X und Y. Following the input of the middle point the rectangle is codrawn continuously. The rectangle input is acknowledged using <L> and aborted using <R>. The keyboard input takes place via the middle point and the elongation of the rectangle using dX and dY. The instantaneous elongation of the rectangle is displayed in the input line as, for example,

dx=21.4 dy=10.33

Polygon

Input a polygon, star, frame, rectangular object, hash key or ellipse.

Polygon selectionPolygonStarRectangular object

The functions of the polygon selection:

Polygon corner/prim.:

Polygon corner/inrad.:

Polygon with perimeter radius.

Polygon with inradius.

First the reference position (middle point) of the polygon is interrogated. For this, with the cursor cross, go to the point at which the middle point of the polygon is to lie and press <L>. As further input the number of corners and the angle of a corner are expected – this input must take place via the keyboard. With an angle of 0 deg. a corner lies right at the height of the middle point. The polygon is codrawn during the cursor movements. The circumradius / inradius can be input via the keyboard in mm.

Polygon base/perim.:

Polygon base/inrad.:

Polygon with perimeter radius.

Polygon with inradius.

First the reference position (middle point) of the polygon is interrogated. For this, with the cursor cross, go to the point at which the middle point of the polygon is to lie and press <L>. As further input the number of corners and the angle of the baseline are expected – this input must take place via the keyboard. With an angle of 0 deg. the baseline is horizontal. The polygon is codrawn during the cursor movements. The circumradius / inradius can be input via the keyboard in mm.

Star:Star with 3..20 points.

Using this function stars in various shapes can be input simply. Zero position: The middle point of the star is demanded as first point. Corners, angle: As further input the number of points (corners) and the angle of a point are expected – this input must take place via the keyboard With an angle of 0 deg. a point lies right at the height of the middle point. Incircle: the incircle defines the minimum elongation of the points. The incircle can be input via the keyboard or using the cursor. Outer circle: the outer defines the maximum elongation of the points. The outer circle can be input via the keyboard or using the cursor. With the cursor input the points are codrawn.

Rectangular object:Create different rectangular objects as well as hash key and ellipse. Follow the input in the respective windows. The reference position can be selected respectively following selection using <F2>, <M> also using the cursor.
Arc 3P
Three positions are required for the input of arcs. The end position of the last function or PosnA counts as 1st position. The 2nd and 3rd positions can be input using <L>. The 1st and 3rd position determine respectively the end points of the arc. The 2nd position should as far as possible lie in the middle of the arc. During the input of the 2nd position a line is carried continuously as “rubber band”. The circle is codrawn with the input of the 3rd position.

Complete circles (An = 360 deg.) cannot be input directly, because start and end position lie at the same point and thus cannot be completely defined. Complete circles must be input as full circle or replaced through two half circles. The instantaneous arc input using the cursor is displayed in the input line as, for example,

R=27.44 SA=185 Al=15.6

Display R in mm, SA and Al in deg.

Arc tang.
Input an arc which closes tangentially to the last input. The last input must be a line or an arc. The instantaneous arc input using the cursor is displayed in the input line as, for example,

 

R=27.44 SA=185 Al=15.6

Display R in mm, SA and Al in deg.

Arc 2P,R
Input arc with radius and 2 points (start point and end point). Several variations are possible through specification of direction of rotation, selection of larger/smaller arc and arc start.

The functions of arc selection:

Large arc neg.:Large arc clockwise (math. negative).
Small arc neg.:Small arc clockwise (math. negative).
Large arc pos.:Large arc anticlockwise (math. positive).
Small arc pos.:Small arc anticlockwise (math. positive).
Arc start 0° / 90° / 180° / 270°:Input of arcs using cursor, which close on the last input using a specified angle.
Arc keyb.
Arcs can be input via keyboard. These arcs cannot be input using the cursor.

The functions of the arc selection:

Arc R,SA,AL:Arc input using the keyboard via the input of radius, the start angle and the arc length.

R :Circular radius in mm.
SA :Angle for start of circle in deg.
AL :Angle for the arc length in deg.
Arc R,SA,EA:Arc input using the keyboard via the input of radius, the start angle and end angle. The direction of rotation results from the sign of EA-SA.

R :Circle radius in mm.
SA :Angle for start of circle in deg.
EA :Angle for end of circle in deg.
Arc C,S:Arc input using the keyboard via the input of radius and crown height. Both end points of the arc lie on a horizontal line. The crown height must be smaller than the radius.

R :Circular radius in mm.
S :Crown height in mm.
Elongated hole (HCAM only)
Selection for rounded or circular elongated hole.

Input for a straight line, horizontal elongated hole. The elongated hole is roundedoff over the complete thickness.

Centre Zx/Zy:Reference point (elongated hole middle) in mm.
Width B:Width of elongated hole in mm.
Thickness D:Overall thickness of the elongated hole in mm.

Input for an elongated hole in the arc. The reference point and the dimensioning can be determined via various parameters.

Position <F2>:Shift for input >centre or hole middle.
Centre/hole middle:Reference point in mm.
Main radius R:Radius from centre up to hole middle in mm.
Thickness D:Thickness of the elongated hole in mm.
Angle/width <F2>:Shift of the dimensioning.
Posn angle/start angle:Dimensioning angle in deg.
Segment angle/meas. width/end angle:Dimensioning angle in deg. or dimensioning width in mm.
Full circleMP Rad
Input a full circle with middle point and radius. The full circle input is acknowledged using <L> and aborted using <R>. The instantaneous full circle radius in mm input using the cursor is displayed in the input line as, for example,

R=27.44

 

Full circle S,E
Input a full circle with 2 diagonally placed points on the circle.

The full circle input is acknowledged using <L> and aborted using <R>. The instantaneous full circle radius in mm input using the cursor is displayed in the input line as, for example,

Rx=27.44 Ry=15.20

 

EllipseMP Rx,Ry
Input an ellipse with middle point and radii in X and Y. For cursor input the ellipse is input via the middle point and a point on the ellipse. The full circle input is acknowledged using <L> and aborted using <R>. The instantaneous radii of the ellipse input using the cursor are displayed in the input line as, for example,

Rx=27.44 Ry=15.20

Ellipse S,E
Input an ellipse with 2 diagonally placed points on the circle.

The full circle input is acknowledged using <L> and aborted using <R>.

The instantaneous radii of the ellipse input using the cursor are displayed in the input line as, for example,

Rx=27.44 Rye=15.20

 

Close track

Close the last section (still unclosed track) to the start point, so that a closed contour is created. If another (not the last) section is to be closed than this section can be selected using the marking aid and then combined to a contour using Close track.